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Therefore, the configuration, setup, build, and deployment processes all require multiple steps you might not want to deal with, especially if you are working on a smaller project. The Spring Boot different from the Spring Framework is a solution for this problem, as it allows you to set up your Spring application faster , with much less configuration. Struts is a full-featured Java web application framework maintained and developed by the Apache Software Foundation.

Struts allow you to create enterprise-level Java applications that are easy to maintain over time. It follows the MVC software design pattern and has a plugin-based architecture. Plugins make it possible to extend the framework to fit with different project needs. Struts plugins are basic JAR packages. Therefore, they are portable and you can also add them to the classpath of your app.

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You can integrate Struts with other Java frameworks to perform tasks that are not built into the platform. For instance, you can use the Spring plugin for dependency injection or the Hibernate plugin for object-relational mapping. However, if you want to create server-side components that can render on the front-end, Struts may not be the best choice for that. Instead, you should look into a framework that has a different architecture such as Tapestry or Wicket see both below.

Also note that Struts got some bad press recently due to some critical security vulnerabilities you still need to be aware of. Tapestry is a component-based Java framework with which you can create scalable web applications.

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Its focus on reusable components makes it architecturally similar to JavaServer Faces and the Wicket framework. Therefore, you can access the whole Java ecosystem from the framework. Tapestry has been built with performance in mind; therefore it provides you with features like live class reloading, exception reporting, Ajax support, and built-in components and templates. Tapestry is a developer-friendly framework as well.

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It has built-in utilities to facilitate test-driven development TDD and comes with support for the Selenium testing framework. Tapestry scales nicely both on single servers and server clusters. Apps built with Tapestry run fast in the browser, as it follows a bunch of best practices such as client-side caching, support for concurrent threads, JavaScript aggregation and compression, integrated GZip content compression, and others. Vaadin provides you with a platform for streamlined Java development. It allows you to build web applications of customizable components that focus on performance, UX, and accessibility.

The most interesting thing to know about Vaadin is that its June release was so significant that even major media outlets reported it. Vaadin 10 approaches web app development in an entirely new way: it gives developers direct access to the DOM from the Java Virtual Machine.

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With the new release, the Vaadin team split the previously monolithic framework into two parts. The components are mobile-first and follow the latest web and accessibility standards; they were built on the Web Components standards. You can use Vaadin components together with any front-end framework such as React, Angular, or Vue.

The creators also recommend them as building blocks for Progressive Web Apps.

Vaadin Flow provides you with a high-level Java API to manage all the technical aspects of your app, from automatic server-client communication via WebSockets to data binding. Flow also lets you write your app in Kotlin or Scala. Its event-driven architecture results in applications that scale nicely even with minimal hardware resources.

And, who would know more about Java than the creator of Eclipse? It provides idiomatic APIs for every supported programming language. As Vert. It has a modular architecture that allows you to use only the modules you need so that your app can stay as slick as possible. Wicket is a component-based web application framework similar to JavaServer Faces and Tapestry. As Wicket is a component-based framework, Wicket apps are made up of reusable pages and components such as images, buttons, links, forms, and others.

Programming a Wicket app centers around POJOs, therefore components are also ordinary Java objects with object-oriented features such as encapsulation and inheritance. Wicket lets you internationalize your apps, pages, and components by providing out-of-the-box support for more than 25 languages. Its built-in Ajax functionality allows you to update parts of your page in real-time, without requiring you to write any JavaScript code.


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Wicket pays attention to secure URL handling as well. If you want to see how Wicket works in real life, check out the Built with Apache Wicket blog where you can see some nice examples. When it comes to Java frameworks, keep an open mind and research which one is best for you. There are so many frameworks that will suit your project, so use this guide to assess your needs.

This module is responsible for knowing which modules in the business layer can process that request and also how to get to that module and what data it needs the contract. The customer object in the business layer is responsible for aggregating all of the information needed by the business request in this case to get customer information. These modules in turn execute SQL statements to retrieve the corresponding data and pass it back up to the customer object in the business layer. Once the customer object receives the data, it aggregates the data and passes that information back up to the customer delegate, which then passes that data to the customer screen to be presented to the user.

From a technology perspective, there are literally dozens of ways these modules can be implemented. For example, in the Java platform, the customer screen can be a JSF Java Server Faces screen coupled with the customer delegate as the managed bean component. The customer object in the business layer can be a local Spring bean or a remote EJB3 bean. From a Microsoft platform perspective, the customer screen can be an ASP active server pages module using the.

The layered architecture pattern is a solid general-purpose pattern, making it a good starting point for most applications, particularly when you are not sure what architecture pattern is best suited for your application. However, there are a couple of things to consider from an architecture standpoint when choosing this pattern.

The first thing to watch out for is what is known as the architecture sinkhole anti-pattern. This anti-pattern describes the situation where requests flow through multiple layers of the architecture as simple pass-through processing with little or no logic performed within each layer. The presentation layer passes the request to the business layer, which simply passes the request to the persistence layer, which then makes a simple SQL call to the database layer to retrieve the customer data.

The data is then passed all the way back up the stack with no additional processing or logic to aggregate, calculate, or transform the data.

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Every layered architecture will have at least some scenarios that fall into the architecture sinkhole anti-pattern. The key, however, is to analyze the percentage of requests that fall into this category. The rule is usually a good practice to follow to determine whether or not you are experiencing the architecture sinkhole anti-pattern.

It is typical to have around 20 percent of the requests as simple pass-through processing and 80 percent of the requests having some business logic associated with the request. However, if you find that this ratio is reversed and a majority of your requests are simple pass-through processing, you might want to consider making some of the architecture layers open, keeping in mind that it will be more difficult to control change due to the lack of layer isolation.

Another consideration with the layered architecture pattern is that it tends to lend itself toward monolithic applications, even if you split the presentation layer and business layers into separate deployable units. While this may not be a concern for some applications, it does pose some potential issues in terms of deployment, general robustness and reliability, performance, and scalability.

The following table contains a rating and analysis of the common architecture characteristics for the layered architecture pattern. The rating for each characteristic is based on the natural tendency for that characteristic as a capability based on a typical implementation of the pattern, as well as what the pattern is generally known for.

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Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform. Manage your account and access personalized content. Sign up for an Oracle Account. Access your cloud dashboard, manage orders, and more. Sign up for a free trial. The massive growth of the Internet and the World-Wide Web leads us to a completely new way of looking at development and distribution of software.

To live in the world of electronic commerce and distribution, Java technology must enable the development of secure, high performance, and highly robust applications on multiple platforms in heterogeneous , distributed networks. Operating on multiple platforms in heterogeneous networks invalidates the traditional schemes of binary distribution, release, upgrade, patch, and so on. To survive in this jungle, the Java programming language must be architecture neutral , portable , and dynamically adaptable.

The system that emerged to meet these needs is simple , so it can be easily programmed by most developers; familiar , so that current developers can easily learn the Java programming language; object oriented , to take advantage of modern software development methodologies and to fit into distributed client-server applications; multithreaded , for high performance in applications that need to perform multiple concurrent activities, such as multimedia; and interpreted , for maximum portability and dynamic capabilities.

Together, the above requirements comprise quite a collection of buzzwords, so let's examine some of them and their respective benefits before going on. The Java programming language is designed to be object oriented from the ground up.

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Object technology has finally found its way into the programming mainstream after a gestation period of thirty years. The needs of distributed, client-server based systems coincide with the encapsulated, message-passing paradigms of object-based software. To function within increasingly complex, network-based environments, programming systems must adopt object-oriented concepts. Java technology provides a clean and efficient object-based development platform.

These libraries can be extended to provide new behavior. The memory management model is extremely simple: objects are created with a new operator. There are no explicit programmer-defined pointer data types, no pointer arithmetic, and automatic garbage collection. You can develop Java code with confidence that the system will find many errors quickly and that major problems won't lay dormant until after your production code has shipped.

Java technology is designed to operate in distributed environments, which means that security is of paramount importance. With security features designed into the language and run-time system, Java technology lets you construct applications that can't be invaded from outside.