In many locations, however, overexploitation by a range of economic sectors poses a threat to Europe's water resources and demand often exceeds availability. As a consequence, problems of water scarcity are widely reported, with reduced river flows, lowered lake and groundwater levels and the drying up of wetlands becoming increasingly commonplace. This general reduction of the water resource also has a detrimental impact upon aquatic habitats and freshwater ecosystems.
Furthermore, saline intrusion of over-pumped coastal aquifers is occurring increasingly throughout Europe, diminishing their quality and preventing subsequent use of the groundwater 3. For agriculture, however, groundwater's role as a source is probably underestimated due to illegal abstraction from wells. In addition, in some locations it provides a more reliable supply than surface water in the summer months 3.
The number of large reservoirs is highest in Spain ca , Turkey ca , Norway ca Italy ca , France ca , the United Kingdom ca and Sweden ca The number and volume of reservoirs across Europe grew rapidly over the twentieth century.
This rate has slowed considerably in recent years, primarily because most of the suitable river sites for damming have been used but also due to growing concerns over the environmental impacts of reservoirs 3. Appliance ownership data is not currently readily available for the new Member States but it is believed that rates are currently relatively low and likely to rise in the future. Higher income can also result in increased use and possession of luxury household water appliances such as power showers, jacuzzis and swimming pools.
Changes in lifestyle, such as longer and more frequent baths and showers, more frequent use of washing machines and the desire for a green lawn during summer, can have a marked effect on household water use. The growth in supply within southern Europe has been driven, in part, by increasing demand from tourism.
In Turkey, abstraction for public water supply has increased rapidly since the early s, reflecting population growth and a rise in tourism 3. Water stress over central and southern Europe is projected to increase. Average annual runoff in Europe varies widely, from less than 25 mm in southeast Spain to more than mm on the west coast of Norway. Climate change is thus going to make the distribution of water resources in Europe much more uneven than it is today.
And even today's distribution is highly uneven, particularly considering the distribution of population density. Not only will climate change affect the spatial distribution of water resources, but also their distribution in time. In northern Europe, the flows in winter December to February will increase two- to three-fold, while in spring they will attenuate considerably, in summer increase slightly and in autumn almost double by the period 2. Supply-side solutions are based on high-cost infrastructural projects like dam building, the construction of dykes and stream channelization.
In the case of the Republic of Moldova, none of these on their own are an optimal solution. Older dams and dykes can actually increase the risk of extreme fl ooding rather than serve to control or prevent fl ooding. Stream channelization will reduce the infi ltration of surface water into confi ned aquifers, thereby reducing ground water storage.
Thus, solutions that combine supply-side and demand-side approaches should be considered Infrastructural solutions should be combined with such systemic adaptation measures as a change in land use in the fl oodplains that would allow natural ecosystems to return to these territories through the rehabilitation of naturally fl ooded areas. This approach will not just increase soil moisture and the recharging of local ground waters, but will contribute to an extension of natural ecosystems, enriching ecosystem services and conserving biodiversity A number of measures exist that may potentially reduce the use of publicly supplied water.
These can be broadly grouped into the categories of water saving devices; greywater re-use; rainwater harvesting and the efficient use of water in gardens and parks; leakage reduction; behavioural change through raising awareness; water pricing; and metering. Since treating, pumping and heating water consumes significant amounts of energy, using less publicly supplied water also reduces energy consumption 3.
In Denmark and Estonia, for example, a steady rise in the price of water since the early s has resulted in a significant decline in household water use. Comprehensive management approaches to water resources that integrate ground water and surface water may greatly reduce human vulnerability to climate extremes and change, and promote global water and food security. Conjunctive uses of ground water and surface water that use surface water for irrigation and water supply during wet periods, and ground water during drought 12 , are likely to prove essential.
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The references below are cited in full in a separate map 'References'. Please click here if you are looking for the full references for Moldova. Moldova Forestry and Peatlands Health. Fresh water resources Moldova Present situation in Moldova Surface water In the Republic of Moldova surface waters are represented by basins of the Dniester and Pruth rivers which are transborder water sources, inland rivers and natural and manmade reservoirs.
Ground water The main ground water reserves are located in deep confined aquifers. Available water resources Taking into consideration different sources of water and various usage restrictions agreements on transboundary rivers, ecological water resources, etc.
The expected impact of diminishing water resources likely to occur in the near future will depend on human and economic activity within the affected regions 11 : In traditionally water deficient zones climate change will put pressure on current economic activity, but water scarcity will not be a new phenomenon for the area and its inhabitants; Areas with vulnerable, mainly rural, populations, especially the southern Transnistria region, already experience water shortages as well as decreasing water table depth in unconfined aquifers due to overexploitation; Central Moldova is exposed to the complex impact of likely diminishing water resources on both rural and urban populations.
Europe: five lake categories There are almost one and a half million lakes in Europe, if small water bodies with an area down to 0. The response of European lakes to climate change can be discussed by dividing the lakes into five categories 9 : Deep, temperate lakes Typical representatives of this class are e. Arctic lakes These are mainly small water bodies in northern Scandinavian mountains and in the tundra region.
Mountain lakes To this class belong all high altitude lakes in central Europe and also those located in southern Scandinavia. South-eastern Europe: four types of lakes In order to discuss the effect of climate change to lakes in south-eastern Europe, the region is divided into three climatic sub regions. Mountaineous regions South-eastern Europe is topographically one of the most diverse regions in the world. Art RI. Read more. Open call.
- Biosolids Engineering [no TOC].
- Moldova: Analysis of transboundary management of the Dniester river basin (#) - GWP.
- Management of Water Quality in Moldova - Gheorghe Duca - Häftad () | Bokus.
- Managing River Water Resources in Moldova.
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Information on the latest events can also be found here. Context The Dniester River and its tributaries constitute the major drinking water reservoir of the Republic of Moldova and Transnistria, the region that broke away from the rest of the country in the early s. Objective The institutional framework for inter-municipal management of water resources has improved.
Approach The project was developed on the basis of a feasibility study conducted by GIZ covering 24 urban and rural settlements with some 76, inhabitants on both banks of the central Dniester basin in Moldova. The project operates in three areas: Confidence-building through inter-municipal cooperation in water resource management. This is to be achieved by means of a better understanding of potentials and expectations of all stakeholders, as well as of the current obstacles and challenges facing cooperation.
To this end, the project uses methodological tools, consultations and dialogues designed to identify strengths and potentials for building trust. It also helps to establish joint monitoring systems for the implementation of inter-municipal action plans and environmental protection activities. Strengthening the capacities of public utilities for improved water supply and sanitation services.
The WSS operators need to upgrade their skills in order to perform proper management, operation and maintenance, especially when new technologies for wastewater treatment are introduced. The balanced participation of the two sides and the various ethnic groups to capacity development process will ensure the transparency of taken decisions and joint ownership of the development process.