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Recent progress towards this attract and reward strategy is reviewed by Simpson et al.

Insecticides are widely used in viticulture and they remain important components of arthropod management programs. In that chapter, these. They also discuss such topics as polarity of insecticides, formulations, synergism, rain fastness, insecticide resistance and its management. Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner is the main biopesticide used in vineyards. It is targeted primarily at lepidopteran larvae.

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Other biopesticides including living organisms such as fungi, nematodes, and viruses are used much less often Walton et al. Currently, few of these biopesticides are registered for use in viticulture, and they pose some challenges for effective use. Overall, they are unstable to heat, UV radiation, or desiccation. They are also slow in action when compared with conventional pesticides and have a short shelf life.

Nevertheless, with the expansion of organic viticulture around the world, their use is expected to increase in the future. International movement of grapevine material and harvested grapes is increasingly common, and several countries and states enforce quarantine legislation to prevent the unwanted movement of grape pests.

As an example, Olivier et al. The implications of having failed to prevent pest movements can be seen in the economic impact of grape phylloxera in vineyards Powell, Chap. Many countries are also making pesticide regulations more restrictive, as they phase out the use of broad-spectrum insecticides and acaricides.

While some regions of viticulture have been at the forefront of developing advanced IPM systems over the years, these regulatory changes are helping to force the transition of whole grape industries toward advanced IPM tactics relying less on chemical inputs and more on biological processes.

Pests, Approaches, and Future Directions

The main characteristic of organic agriculture is the avoidance of synthetic inputs as described within organic certification programs. The details vary from one certification organization to another but they share the same philosophy of minimizing the impact of agriculture on the environment.

As stated by Madge , organic viticulture is a more holistic approach to management, not the standard approach based on selecting different inputs that respond to different problems. In terms of protection programs, organic certification implies that no synthetic pesticides are used. Such constraints open the door to alternative management methods. In theory, the pest community found in organic vineyards should be similar to conventional vineyards, but. Little has been published on the implications of organic viticulture for IPM programs based on scientific experimentation, but there are some IPM components such as habitat manipulation that have been tested within organic vineyards e.

Nicholls et al. According to Madge , quarantine and hygiene are the cornerstones of organic viticulture to prevent pests and diseases from accidentally entering the vineyard. These practices should also be important in conventional viticulture. The translation of scientific knowledge into practical IPM programs is an everlasting and important challenge. Grape pest researchers from around the world are responding to this challenge, as shown in this book. Several countries or states have made considerable investments in employing people to aid in this dissemination of knowledge from the research community into the grower community.

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Such extension services can provide unbiased information to help growers make appropriate management decisions within their IPM programs Flaherty et al. However, with the future of these programs unclear in some regions where financial resources are limited and with greater access to technology among farmers or their advisors, information delivery is moving from a more personal approach to increasing use of electronic delivery.

The internet allows the circulation of information at very low cost. IPM guidelines are also available on the web, e. Many regions of grape production also have locally-relevant and timely pest newsletters that are distributed during the growing season to provide growers with news on which pests are active, and with pest alerts and reminders on their IPM options available for pest management, e. Michigan State University Extension Finally, field guides for scouting are useful tools to provide rough identification of pests in a vineyard: an example is Isaacs et al. Challenges posed by arthropods differ depending on localities.

In dry areas such as California, Italy and southern France, phytophagous mites and mealybugs are driving the IPM systems. The major challenge of cool-climate viticulture is the climate. Because cool-climate viticulture occurs at the edge of the agronomic possibilities, the choice of cultivars and the economics including research funding are limited.

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From a crop protection point of view, diseases are often much more important than entomological problems in these regions, as reflected in the number of fungicide sprays applied each year against downy mildew P. As agricultural lands devoted to viticulture are relatively small in cool-climate regions, the build-up of entomological problems do not occur at the same pace and intensity compared to well established vine-growing regions.

As argued for the need for microbial insecticides in temperate orchards by Lacey and Shapiro-Ilan , there are needs for biopesticides in vineyards. When compared with chemical insecticides there is currently much less use of microbial insecticides, and this area has great potential if the efficacy is high enough and the cost competitive.

Likewise, relatively little has been published concerning the use of botanicals in vineyards. Gke et al. Of the four plants, Bifora radians has the greatest potential for further development because it showed high ingestion and ovicidal activity, as well as anti-oviposition activity. However, as it is the case for all botanicals, it will take several years to be developed and registered because a registrant must document its field efficacy and its innocuity in order to comply with the regulations RegnaultRoger et al.

In viticultural settings, the main challenge for integrated pest management remains the development and coordination of all information and technologies into a package that is optimally relevant to growers in a given area. Only dedicated research efforts such as those described in the pages of this book can provide the tools to achieve this goal. Mol Ecol In: Pimentel D ed Encyclopedia of pest management.

PLoS One 6:e Ecol Appl Domin A Wine. Publication Acta Hortic J Pest Sci. Elsevier, Boston Keller M The science of grapevines: anatomy and physiology. Elsevier, Boston Kennedy J Understanding grape berry development. Histoire de climats et de gots. Case histories from around the world. Nonpesticide alternatives can suppress crop pests. Calif Agric Nicholls CI, Parrella MP, Altieri MA Reducing the abundance of leafhoppers and thrips in a northern California organic vineyard through maintenance of full season floral diversity with summer cover crops.

Habitat Modification to Enhance Biological Control of Vineyard Leafhoppers

Lavoisier Tech et Doc, Paris. Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California. Thresholds provide a quantitative basis upon which crop managers can decide whether arthropod pest populations are below, at, or exceeding a level that warrants the expense of activities to reduce the pests density. These interventions may be cultural, biological, or chemical control practices that reduce the pest population below the economic threshold. Thresholds are an essential component of an IPM program, and their use can lead to significant reduction in pesticides applied to crops and lower costs of production for farmers Pedigo et al.

The development, validation, and implementation of economic thresholds have been reported for a wide range of destructive arthropods that affect crop systems, as reviewed by Stern and Pedigo et al. Economic thresholds have been developed for some key grape pests, but there is significant need for further development and refinement of thresholds for arthropod pests of vineyards, as well as a need for dissemination of the information and education about their use. Here, we discuss the theoretical basis of economic thresholds and the unique challenges inherent in developing and implementing threshold-based pest management in vineyards.

A series of examples are provided to highlight how vine thresholds to arthropod pest injury have been developed, and we give examples of different approaches that can be employed for using thresholds in vineyard IPM programs. This field of science began when Stern et al. One of their important insights was to formalize the concept that the expense of pest control was warranted only when the value of crop losses exceeded the pesticide and application costs.

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The Integrated Control Concept stresses integration of natural control strategies along with pesticides and it also gave birth to the idea of economic thresholds. Further investigations by Pedigo and colleagues e. Pedigo et al. Yield or quality loss assessment data are essential for developing economic thresholds, because they are the means by which an insect is judged a pest, they are the final criteria by which the efficacy of control measures are evaluated, and because they form the basis for decision-making in insect pest management programs.

Adoption of threshold-based pest management can also allow time for natural controls such as parasitic wasps or predatory mites to feed on the pest, and maintain it below the threshold. Despite their importance for full implementation of integrated pest management programs, relatively few studies have determined the quantitative relationships between pest density and yield loss or crop damage. There are many instances where locally-developed rules-of-thumb are employed to provide working thresholds, but in the absence of thorough investigation and with a high per-hectare value to grape crops, these are often overly conservative.

The development of research-based and validated pest thresholds is an area where further research effort should be directed. This is especially important for the newer regions of grape production where novel arthropod-vine interactions are developing in which the level of economic impact is not known, and where managers are likely to take a cautious approach in the absence of formal pest thresholds and associated decision tools. Still, established regions of grape production would also benefit from further refinement of thresholds or testing them under a broader range of conditions.

Increasing density of a pest arthropod on a crop will eventually cause sufficient damage to result in yield loss and hence a decrease in income. The form of the. Damage Fig. Susceptive response Fig. This is usually seen in insects that attack seeds. The total number of seeds damaged will be the product of the total number of seeds consumed during the lifespan of an insect and the total number of insects present per plant.

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In viticulture, many directfeeding insect pests of grape clusters fall into this category, such as the various moth species, the larvae of which infest grape berries. Tolerant response Fig. Once over this tolerance level, yield declines rapidly with increasing insect density, similar to the susceptive response.